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Celiac disease - nutritional considerations

Definition

Celiac disease is an immune disorder passed down through families.

Gluten is a protein found in wheat, barley, rye, or sometimes oats. It may also be found in some medicines. When a person with celiac disease eats or drinks anything containing gluten, the immune system responds by damaging the lining of the intestinal tract. This affects the body's ability to absorb nutrients.

Carefully following a gluten-free diet helps prevent symptoms of the disease.

Alternative Names

Gluten-free diet; Gluten sensitive enteropathy - diet; Celiac sprue - diet

Food Sources

To follow a gluten-free diet means, you need to avoid all foods, drinks, and medications made with gluten. This means not eating anything made with barley, rye, and wheat. All items made with all-purpose, white, or wheat flour are prohibited.

FOODS YOU CAN EAT

  • Beans
  • Cereals made without wheat or barley malt
  • Corn
  • Fruits and vegetables
  • Meat, poultry, and fish (not breaded or made with regular gravies)
  • Milk-based items
  • Oats (may be okay for some people with celiac disease, but work closely with your doctor or dietitian)
  • Potatoes
  • Rice

FOODS TO AVOID

  • Flax, millet
  • Legumes, nuts, seeds, cassava
  • Tapioca, sorghum

The gluten-free diet involves removing all foods, drinks, and medications made from gluten. This means not eating anything made with barley, rye, and wheat. All items made with all-purpose, white, or wheat flour are prohibited.

Obvious sources of gluten include:

  • Breaded foods
  • Breads, bagels, croissants, buns
  • Cakes, donuts, and pies
  • Cereals (most)
  • Cold cuts, hot dogs, salami, or sausage
  • Crackers and many snacks bought at the store, such as potato chips and tortilla chips
  • Gravy
  • Pancakes and waffles
  • Pasta and pizza
  • Soups (most)
  • Stuffing

Less obvious foods that must be eliminated include:

  • Beer
  • Candies (some)
  • Communion breads
  • Croutons
  • Marinades, sauces, soy and teriyaki sauces
  • Salad dressings (some)
  • Self-basting turkey

There is a risk of cross-contamination. Items that are naturally gluten-free may become contaminated if they are made on the same production line, or moved together in the same place, as foods containing gluten.

Eating at restaurants, work, school, and social gatherings can be challenging. Call ahead and plan. It is important to read labels before buying or eating, due to the widespread use of wheat and barley in foods.

Despite its challenges, maintaining a healthy, balanced diet is possible with education and planning.

Recommendations

Talk to a registered dietitian who specializes in celiac disease and the gluten-free diet to help you plan your diet.

You may also want to join a local support group. These groups can help people with celiac disease share practical advice on ingredients, baking, and ways to cope with this life-altering, lifelong disease.

Your doctor might have you take multivitamin and mineral or individual nutrient supplement to correct or prevent a deficiency.

References

Rubio-Tapia A, Hill ID, Kelly CP, et al. American College of Gastroenterology Guideline: Diagnosis and management of Celiac disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108:656–676.

Semrad CE. Approach to the patient with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 142.


Review Date: 2/16/2014
Reviewed By: Todd Eisner, MD, Private practice specializing in Gastroenterology, Boca Raton, FL. Affiliate Assistant Professor, Florida Atlantic University School of Medicine. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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